-------------------------------------------------> Linus Torvalds' master branch \ \ \ \ A stable release Another stable release
This will be a short and easy tutorial on how to use Git to manage your kernel sources.
Before Git, the easiest way to manage your kernel sources was to download the kernel using the provided tarballs from kernel.org and update them downloading the provided patches between releases, which was very important to keep the download size small, instead of downloading complete tarballs each time. Also, by applying patches, you only needed to rebuild stuff that changed between releases instead of the full kernel once more. This is a good method that can be applied today and will probably never disappear. Simple HTTP and FTP downloads are very convenient in many situations.
However, with the arrival of kernel 2.6, its stable branches (e.g. the 2.6.32.y branch) and Git, there have been some changes. First of all, the process is now a bit more complicated. Stable patches are applied against the base release. If you have the kernel sources for version 126.96.36.199 and want to jump to version 188.8.131.52, you first have to revert the changes of release 184.108.40.206 (
patch --reverse) and then apply the 220.127.116.11 patch. Slightly less convenient and, furthermore, you’ll modify every file that changed with every patch until that moment. This will affect the compilation process that would follow afterwards. In other words, if patch 18.104.22.168 meant (hypothetically speaking) a long build because it changed stuff that affected a lot of systems, so will be the build process for any other subsequent release in the 2.6.32.y branch. It was this small glitch that prompted me to manage my kernel sources the way I’m going to describe. Also, using Git is fun. :)
We will try to achieve the following:
We will have a master branch that will follow Torvalds' master branch and will be updated from time to time, or when he releases a new stable version of the Linux kernel (e.g. 2.6.32).
We will have other local branches that follow the stable releases by Greg K-H (e.g. 2.6.30.y, 2.6.31.y, 2.6.32.y, etc).
Git is very flexible and simple, and allows more than one way to do things. I will try to explain why I do things this way and why they make sense to me, and will try to avoid shortcuts, i.e. I will use one command for each action even if two actions could be compressed into a single command.
First, we will create a directory to hold the kernel sources. Let’s name it /path/to/kernel. In it we’ll have a directory named "src" that will hold the unmodified kernel sources and a second directory named "build" that we’ll use to build the kernel and keep the sources intact, for clarity. We start by cloning Torvalds' branch:
cd /path/to/kernel mkdir build git clone 'git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git' src
This will create a directory named "src" with the sources. Take into account you’ll be downloading the full repository with a lot of revision history. It’s a relatively long download that requires a lot of patience or a good broadband connection. Whatever you have at hand. At the moment I’m writing this, it’s several hundred MBs but less than 1 GB, if I recall correctly.
If you issue a "git branch" command you’ll see you only have a local branch named "master". This local branch follows Torvalds' master branch. You can update your kernel sources when you are in this branch issuing a simple "git pull" command.
Now, we will add a second local branch to follow the stable 2.6.32.y kernel. In other words, our master branch follows Torvalds' master branch and our "branch_2.6.32.y" (let’s call it that way) will have to follow the master branch in the stable 2.6.32.y repository.
First, we create a shortcut to the 2.6.32.y repository for convenience:
git remote add remote_2.6.32.y \ 'git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/stable/linux-2.6.32.y.git'
The name "remote_2.6.32.y" is arbitrary. At this moment, that name is only like an alias for that long URL and barely anything more. The next step is very important so that the name becomes something more and the following git commands understand what you mean when you use it. It will download data to your repository under that name.
git fetch remote_2.6.32.y
After you run that, which will take considerably less time that the full repository clone we did previously, remote_2.6.32.y will have a meaning in your hard drive. You can then use the following command:
git branch --track branch_2.6.32.y remote_2.6.32.y/master
This will create a new branch in your local repository that will be tracking the master branch at the 2.6.32.y repository. If you issue a "git branch" command you’ll now see you have two branches. Being a "tracking branch" means several things. You can change between the master branch and the new branch using "git checkout <branch name>" and, in each branch, you can perform a simple "git pull" to retrieve changes to that branch from the remote repository. From this point you’re on your own using Git to manage the sources and perform more operations if you need them, but the many tutorials available on the web will get you going in the basics of Git and that’s the only thing needed to manage the kernel sources with the only purpose of easing the downloading and building process.
Note that, between release 22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199, for example, you will only download the changes between those releases and a painful build for 188.8.131.52 does not have to mean a painful build for 184.108.40.206 if you update your sources this way.
Finally, we had created a "build" directory previously, in parallel to the "src" directory, in order to keep the sources directory clean. We can use this directory easily. When we are at the "src" directory, any "make command" we use can and would have to be replaced by "make O=../build". To avoid mistakes, I have created a global alias in my system called "kmake", aliased precisely to "make O=../build". It affects the regular user account that I use to compile the kernel sources and the root account that I use in the installation step, to perform the "modules_install", "firmware_install" and "install" operations.
As a regular user account:
As the root account:
These aliases could be tuned further to install the kernel image, modules, firmware, etc to a sandbox directory if you intend to create packages with them, for example. The README file in the kernel sources directory has more information about this topic.